Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This study investigated intimate partner violence in interracial and monoracial relationships. Using a nationally representative sample, regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial white couples but a level similar to monoracial black couples. There were ificant gender differences in IPV, with women reporting lower levels of victimization than men.
Thirty men were executed for rape in Florida between andin a state undergoing rapid population growth, Sunbelt economic change, and black freedom struggle protest and activism. This essay focuses on these thirty capital cases and the compelling statistical evidence of selective execution by race to examine which acts of Tallahassee violence were considered so heinous as to warrant the death penalty: gang rape, serial offending, and the invasion of the white family home by the burglar-turned-rapist.
As in other southern states, Florida courtrooms were important sites of Civil Rights protest, as black defendants and their lawyers sought to challenge racial inequities in the prosecution of interracial sexual violence and the lack of due process afforded non-white offenders, although success was limited. Despite a description of the alleged African American attacker and searches by civilian and military police, there was no swift arrest. He was arrested at the restaurant on 23 Aprilby Tampa police detectives who did not initially tell him the nature of the charge.
She subsequently identified Flowers as her attacker from a police line-up. Flowers was convicted in Hillsborough County of capital rape on 5 Junebut his lawyers challenged many aspects of this, including the validity of the arrest, and the process of identification of Flowers as a suspect. Of the six white men given death sentences for rape, five received commutations to life imprisonment, and one was executed.
All thirty who were executed had been convicted of assaulting white girls or women. Using two gang rape cases from the s, it further examines the explanations offered by offenders for their actions and the ways in which stereotypes of black male behaviour could shape juror decisions to convict. Dating combination of black male offender and white female victim remained a powerful man of execution for rape in s and s Florida.
Executions functioned symbolically and practically to police interracial social and sexual behaviour, and to reinforce gender, race, and class boundaries. Nevertheless, specific aggravating factors increased the likelihood of a death sentence being black out.
Extant archival materials underline the common features of black rape cases: immobilisation and emasculation of a white boyfriend or husband; the targeting of a lone, vulnerable, white women in a manner that threatened the freedom of movement of others; two or more offenders acting in concert; serial offenders; and the invasion of white family homes, particularly bedrooms. All men convicted of capital rape had used a weapon, usually a gun, knife or ice pick, to subdue, threaten or coerce their victim s. For example, in Julya year-old white girl in Jacksonville was assaulted by a young black male, later identified as Charlie Copeland, holding an ice pick to her throat, as her mother slept in a different room.
Not all the legal paperwork is complete or available for every capital rape case. Some death penalty files contain complete trial transcripts and witness testimony; others contain only a summary of proceedings. Similarly, several superior court dating include lengthy descriptions of the case Tallahassee grounds for appeal; others stretch to one sentence affirming the capital conviction.
In the s, black men were executed for rape; 81 in the s. Fundamentalist beliefs, invocation of scripture, and religious language remained important parts of political and social discourse. Consequently, tolerance of liberal sexual mores was often very limited. Some defendants were indicted on a capital rape charge which was later withdrawn: year-old white defendant Kenneth Lee Holcomb was released in September after spending three months in the Pinellas County jail because the complainant was reluctant to proceed. These types of attack could therefore stoke national fears over public safety in a state whose income depended on military spending and tourism, and undermine national military investment in Florida.
Further, state officials believed that any suggestion that local police, jurors, man courts were not competent to protect military personnel and their families had to be resisted.
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In the cases of the black men, there were 68 African American female victims, including 26 children under the age of 14 years, and 84 white female victims. The Native American defendant had also been convicted of raping a white woman. Of the six white men sentenced to death for rape, four had been convicted of attacks on white children, and only one had been executed. Three black men had been sentenced to death for attacks on two black women and one child respectively, but none were executed.
Generally, these did not result in a capital conviction or execution. InJames H. Raulerson and Fritz H. He was electrocuted in June for the murder of a military wife near Tyndall Air Force close to Panama Citybut had first raped the young mother while she and her toddler son were at home. There was no jury recommendation of mercy, and appeals were unsuccessful. Ejaculation and sperm residue on the victim were not required, but in practice, this could determine whether a case was prosecuted as rape or attempted rape.
In FebruarySamuel Jiminez, Diego Hernandez, and Raymond Rodriquez picked up a young Anglo woman in Tampa, who was waiting for a female friend to get off work at midnight. She seemed to have willingly got into their car and visited a tavern with them, but when they drove her to an out-of-town dirt road, she refused to have sex with them. They tried to beat consent from her and when she refused, she was assaulted in the back of the car. Southern and coastal counties, such as Dade and Pinellas, experienced the most dramatic growth.
By the early s, Dade and Hillsborough, dominated by the cities of Miami and Tampa, provided 25 percent of all commitments for all types of offences to the state prison system.
Duval, Broward, and Pinellas counties together ed for 18 percent. Augustine ineven as defenders of white supremacy and black disfranchisement resorted to increasingly strident and violent resistance. Black communities were plagued by police violence in this period. Local white vigilantes intimidated African Americans by burning a 6-foot cross near their homes.
Combs initially claimed he had won the items in a crap game, but confessions to two robberies and two violent sexual assaults were quickly obtained by Clearwater police officers and the Pinellas County sheriff. Williams, Freddie Lee Lane, and James Davis were electrocuted in quick dating on the morning of 9 Octoberfor the rape of a year-old army wife.
All three defendants pled guilty at their trial in Alachua County. She stated that around 9 pm on 29 Saturday July, she was driving alone when another car with three armed black males sped past and blocked her route. She was forced to stop, two men got into her car, and she was wedged between them in the front seat as they drove off. Shortly after, they crashed into a ditch, she was then repeatedly raped at gunpoint, and driven through the Chattahoochee area before being raped again in nearby woods.
She was then shot in the side of the forehead her scars were visible in courtdeliberately covered with brush and leaves, and left for dead. After a period of unconsciousness, she stumbled to the roide, and summoned help from a man motorist early on the morning of 30 July. Within hours, Williams, Lane and Davis had been arrested in a stolen car in Suwannee County by state patrolmen and military police.
Confessions were obtained from all three defendants at the state prison on the morning of 31 July. During the car journey in the company of white police black, the fear and vulnerability of black defendants increased, particularly if they did not know where they were going, how long the Tallahassee would take, and as police often took circuitous routes to deliberately pursue a confession.
Intimate partner violence in interracial and monoracial couples
Black was one of five defendants between the ages of 16 and 20 years who were executed for rapewhen the age of majority in Florida was still 21 years. FBI director J. Around 11 pm. One sat on the male date and robbed him of money, including two silver dollars and a watch, while the other assaulted the woman; they then Tallahassee places and she was assaulted again.
The couple immediately alerted police, and James Andrew Maxwell aged 29 and Joe Ferguson aged 41 were arrested at their homes in the early hours of 27 March. Their conduct thus conformed to long-held white views about lax black male sexual mores and sexual incontinence, and further reinforced popular beliefs that African Americans and whites adhered to different standards of sexual propriety. The alternative narratives provided by both defendants may have reinforced juror suspicions rather than provided reasonable doubt as to their guilt.
In both the Hollywood and Gden County dating, the attacks by two or three generally unsympathetic offenders on respectable women, the multiple offences of abduction, armed robbery and assault, the confessions in the Gden Man case, the emasculation of the white male robbery victim in the Hollywood case, and the special burden of interracial rape accusations, all increased the likelihood of capital conviction.
Maxwell and Ferguson were executed in August Lonnie Lee Talley was executed in October for an attack on a young mother in her rural home near Jacksonville on 22 July He offered an alibi for the afternoon of 22 July, but the testimony of the women, their identification of Talley in police line-ups, his distinctive truck, and forensic evidence therein persuaded jurors, the judge and later supreme court justices that Talley was a serial rapist who posed a serious and continuing threat to the white women of Duval County.
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Graessle, Jr, a future president of the Florida Bar Association, and from the circuit judge for Clay, Duval and Nassau Counties, unsuccessfully challenged the inclusion of the collateral and ultimately damning testimony of the other rape victims, because Talley was on trial for one offence only. The Sheriff of Pinellas County announced that City had confessed to assaulting five women, aged 55 to 72 years, in their bedrooms, and the attempted rape of a sixth, over a period of twenty-two months. City was charged with one assault, of a year-old woman on 17 October Pinellas was a flourishing coastal county, with a popular resort area and booming technological industries.
Educated and highly-skilled professionals took up technological posts, while lower-skilled white and black workers serviced new housing developments and hotels. He pled guilty without contest. The state pardon board refused clemency on 6 October In fact, the last three black men to be executed for the rape of white women in Florida, were all from Pinellas, where suspicion over growing s of non-white workers and residents, anxieties over public safety and the sanctity of the white home, and white community anger, all framed the prosecution of interracial rape complaints.
Davis had spent fifteen of his twenty-nine years in state orphanages and prisons, and many contended that state officials had systematically failed to provide material and psychiatric help to a vulnerable and neglected young person. Further, Davis had showed no remorse for his actions or sympathy for his victim.
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Every governor had robustlydefended capital punishment until Januarywhen Collins announced his support for abolition on religious and moral grounds. He urged Florida legislators to repeal the death penalty, yet continued to death warrants.
Nevertheless, commissioners did not favour removing rape from the list of capital offences. Constituents like Mrs. Justine V. Nationally, executions were halted by judicial stays issued in andand a national death penalty moratorium continued until Executive and legislative unease over selective execution by race, particularly in capital rape cases, was not shared by many local constituents or law enforcement, particularly if an African American serial rapist was believed to be at large, or a gang rape was reported.
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An April editorial in the St. Some commentators believed that the convictions of four white male rapists for their premeditated attack on a young black woman in Tallahassee inand a handful of similar white male convictions in other states, ified that popular and official attitudes toward rape were changing in important ways in the southern states during the late s. However, the life or lengthy sentences handed down to these offenders did not equate to the death sentences that many black male defendants could still routinely expect, particularly if they had been convicted of an assault on a white girl or woman.
Sam Wiley Odom the only rape defendant from Lake County to be executed in Junehad been saved from mob violence, but was subsequently convicted after six minutes of juror deliberation.