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A century ago, as the United States advanced from an agrarian to an industrial nation, one historian described Illinois as having a more ificant history than any other state "west of the Alleghenies. For information on the use or reproduction of images or text, please see our policy.
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Content. Petterchak A century ago, as the United States advanced from an agrarian to an industrial nation, one historian described Illinois as having a more ificant history than any other state "west of the Alleghenies. Paleo Indians roam the area, briefly occupying small european in coniferous forests and subsisting on large game and wild plants. Archaic period Indians inhabit deciduous forests in small groups, hunt deer and small game, weave baskets, and grind seeds with stones. Woodland culture Indians develop maize agriculture, build villages and burial mounds, invent the bow and arrow for hunting, and begin making pottery.
Indians of the Mississippian culture improve dating methods, build temple mounds and large fortified villages. Most of the settlements are abandoned prior to the historic period. Marquette founds a mission at the Great Village of the Illinois, near present Utica.
Iroquois Indians destroy the Great Village of the Illinois. La Salle and Tonty build Fort St. Louis to Kaskaskia. Illinois becomes part of the French colony of Louisiana. John Law is granted a French charter for colonizing the Mississippi Valley; his "Mississippi Bubble" scheme bursts in Fort de Chartres in Randolph County becomes the seat of military and civilian government in Illinois.
In a major battle, hostile Fox Indians are massacred in east-central Illinois by French troops and Indian Peoria.
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According to legend, northern tribes besiege and starve Illinois Indians tribes at Fort St. Louis, now known as Starved Rock. Jean Baptiste Point du Sable ? Treaty of Paris extends the United States boundary to include the Illinois country.
Northwest Ordinance places Illinois in the Northwest Territory. Arthur St. Clair becomes the first governor of the Northwest Territory.
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Congress creates the Indiana Territory, which includes Illinois. Kaskaskia Indians cede nearly all of their Illinois lands to the United States. William Clark and his troops depart from Camp Dubois, Madison County, to Meriwether Lewis for westward explorations. Congress organizes the Illinois Territory, with Kaskaskia the capital, Ninian Edwards the governor. The first coal mine in Illinois is opened in Jackson County. New Madrid, Missouri, earthquake, the largest in United States history, damages southern Illinois recurs in Potawatomi Indians massacre fifty-two troops and civilians in destroying Fort Dearborn.
Land offices are opened at Kaskaskia and Shawneetown. The first newspaper in the state, the Illinois Herald, is published at Kaskaskia. The first bank in Illinois, at Shawneetown, is chartered by the territorial legislature. War of veterans begin receiving acre land warrants in the Illinois Military Tract, a region between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers.
Illinois becomes the twenty-first state, with Kaskaskia the capital and Shadrach Bond the first governor. Population of the state is 34, Kickapoo Indians move west of the Mississippi, relinquishing most claims to central Illinois lands. General Assembly charters a state bank at Vandalia, with branches at Shawneetown, Edwardsville, and Brownsville.
Voters defeat a constitutional convention call to permit slavery in the state. Gurdon S. General Assembly enacts the first public school law and levies a school tax. The first state prison is built at Alton. Abraham Lincoln moves to Illinois from Indiana.
James Hall launches Illinois Monthly Magazine, the first literary periodical published west of Ohio. Treaty of Chicago provides for United States acquisition and settlement of the last remaining Indian lands in Illinois.
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Galena and Chicago Union Railroad is chartered; completed twelve years later. Chicago receives a city charter; William Ogden becomes the first mayor. At Alton a pro-slavery mob murders abolitionist editor Elijah P. Lovejoy b. John Deere of Grand Detour des a self-scouring steel plow. Northern Cross Railroad construction is begun between Meredosia and Springfield; the line is completed in Springfield becomes the state capital. Nation al Road is completed from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia. Joseph Smith chooses Nauvoo as headquarters for the Mormon church.
Chicagoan John S. Wright begins publishing Prairie Farmer magazine.
British author Charles Dickens visits southern Illinois, described in his American Notes Anti-Mormons assassinate Mormon leaders Joseph and Hyrum b. Donner party leaves Springfield by wagon train for California; forty-two perish in Sierra Mountains snowstorms. Erik Jansson and Jonas Olson ?
Joseph Medill founds the Chicago Tribune. Jacksonville educator Jonathan Baldwin Turner introduces Osage orange hedges as farm fencing.
Chicago Board of Trade is organized; it is now the largest and oldest commodity futures exchange in the world. Population of the state isIllinois Central Railroad receives the first federal land grant for rail construction. The first state fair is held at Springfield. General Assembly enacts legislation to prevent free blacks from settling in the state.
Chicago Historical Society is founded, with William H. Brown the first president. Douglas hold seven debates in the United States Senate contest; Douglas wins the election. Lincoln is elected President of the United States, defeating three other candidates. Luxury steamer Lady Elgin sinks in Lake Michigan; nearly three hundred perish. Civil War begins; Cairo becomes a troop and supply center for the Union Army. Union League of America is founded in Pekin for the promotion of patriotism and Union loyalty.
General Assembly repeals measures against black settlement Black Laws ; is the first state legislature to ratify the Thirteenth European abolishing slavery. Lincoln is assassinated in Washington, D. Chicago Union Stock Yards opens; by employs more than one third of packing industry laborers in the nation. George M. Pullman founds the Pullman Palace Car Company Peoria Chicago, manufacturing railroad sleeping cars. Ulysses S. Chicago merchant Aaron Montgomery Ward establishes the first large-scale mail order business.
General Assembly grants communities taxing authority to establish dating maintain public libraries. Joseph F. Glidden of DeKalb develops barbed wire fencing, patented in United States Supreme Court establishes in Munn v. Illinois the principle that business of a public nature is subject to state regulation.
General Assembly establishes the Illinois National Guard. Bell Telephone Company of Illinois begins service in Chicago. Leslie E. Keeley and John R. Oughton establish the Keeley Institute in Dwight for treatment of alcoholism; by franchised sanitoriums are operating in many states. General Assembly enacts the first compulsory school attendance legislation. Haymarket Square bombing and riot in Chicago during a labor rally cause several deaths; eight anarchists are convicted, four are hanged, and one dies in prison. Chicago attorney Melville W. Evangelist Dwight L.