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Learn about the experiences of early residents and how they grappled with pivotal and ongoing issues of freedom, equality and faith.

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our community of over 2 million activists across the nation fighting for change and for justice. The criminal justice system is heavily impacted by the bias of police mentality, as well as outdated judicial precedents. It is largely driven by racial disparities, which directly obstruct and deconstruct our minority communities. The origins of our modern-day police mentality can be traced back to the "Slave Patrol".

The earliest formal slave patrol was created in the Carolinas in the early s, with the following mission: to establish a system of terror in response to slave uprisings with the capacity to pursue, apprehend, and return runaway slaves to their owners, including the use of excessive force to control and produce desired slave behavior.

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Slave Patrols allowed forcible entry into any home solely based on suspicions of protecting runaway slaves. Slave Patrols continued until the end of the Civil War and the passage of the 13th Amendment. History Explained. There is an obvious disparity in how the general public view fatal encounters between police and Black people. The of people shot to death by the police in the United States from toby race.

Source: Statista. The primary purpose of the court system is to try each case presented, render a verdict, and determine sentencing. The correctional branch of the criminal justice system involves a network of agencies that administer prisons and programs like parole and probation boards in a given jurisdiction. Donate to help us continue the fight. Know the Issues Trending Topics. Action Alert: Cancel Student Debt. Action Alert: Uniformed police reform. Become a Member Renew Your Membership.

Criminal justice fact sheet

Origins of Modern Day Policing The origins of our modern-day police mentality can be traced back to the "Slave Patrol". History Explained Criminal Justice System: Law Enforcement Background Law enforcement officials are responsible for the investigation of a crime and to gather evidence to identify and use against the pd perpetrator. The presumption upon which they are supposed to operate is that individuals are suspects and innocent until proven guilty.

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As ofthere arefull-time employed law enforcement officials across the United States. The Fourth Amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and is the foundation for the protections included in our Miranda Rights : " You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be held against you in the court of law.

You have the right to an attorney. If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided for you. A Black man is twice as likely to be stopped without just cause than a Black woman. Police Brutality 1, people have been shot and killed by police in the past year.

There are somewhere between and 1, people who are shot and killed by police in the United States each year. Since98 non-federal law enforcement officers have been arrested in connection with fatal, on-duty shootings. To date, only 35 of these officers have been convicted of a crime, often a lesser offense such as manslaughter or negligent homicide, rather than murder.

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Only three officers have been convicted of murder during this period and seen their convictions stand. Another 22 officers were acquitted in a jury trial and nine were acquitted during a bench trial decided by a judge. Currently, there are 21 non-federal law enforcement officers with pending criminal cases for fatal shootings. Public Perception of Police Brutality and Racial Bias in the Criminal Justice System There is an obvious disparity in how the general public view fatal encounters between police and Black people. Despite the fact that more white people have been killed by police, Black and Hispanic people are disproportionately impacted.

Black people make up This does not take into consideration other forms of police brutality, including non-lethal shootings. Source: Statista claims were filed during the fiscal year against the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Office related to police misconduct. Two-hundred and forty-one lawsuits were dismissed without any payments.

LAPD has approximately 9, sworn officers. The Effects of Police Brutality on Mental Health Police killings of unarmed Black Americans are responsible for more than 50 million additional days of poor mental health per year among Black Americans.

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This mental health burden is comparable to that associated with diabetes, a disease that strikes 1 in 5 Black Americans. Fatal police violence is the 6th leading cause of death for men ages 25 to 29 across all racial groups. The lifetime risk of dying from police violence is at its highest from ages 20 to 35, and this applies to men and women of all races. On average, Black Americans are exposed to four police killings of other unarmed Black Americans in the same state each year.

The Cost of Police Brutality While many police brutality and fatal police shootings are not prosecuted in criminal court, victims and the families of victims have been able to pursue civil judgments, which cost millions of taxpayers dollars each year. New York City has the largest police force with 36, members serving 8. Criminal Justice System: The Courts The primary purpose of the court system is to try each case presented, render a verdict, and determine sentencing. Individual rights are protected by the Constitution in the court of law, such as follows; The right to face your accuser The right to not incriminate oneself The right to counsel The right to a jury trial The jury must be a fair cross-section of the community, which in most cases should not lead to a jury composed of a single race or gender.

Batson v. Kentucky, U. A Batson challenge is a challenge made by one party in a case to the other party's use of peremptory challenges to eliminate potential jurors from the jury on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or religion.

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A trial usually begins with jury selection. One out of every three Black boys born today can expect to be sentenced to prison, compared 1 out 6 Latino boys; one out of 17 white boys. Sentencing reform addresses the inequities in sentencing as a result of the court's due process.

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For example, Delaware lawmakers enacted Senate Bill 47, a measure that removes geographic-based sentencing enhancements — "drug-free" school zones — that disproportionately impact those living in urban areas and are known to exacerbate racially disparate sentencing outcomes.

In recent years, New Jersey, Indiana, and Utah adopted legislation to scale back drug zone sentencing enhancements. California lawmakers passed Senate Bill to repeal the one-year sentence enhancement for each prior prison or county jail felony term.

The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation estimated that 10, persons currently incarcerated were serving a sentence that included a one-year enhancement. In the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 17 million white people and 4 million African Americans reported having used an illicit drug within the last month. African Americans and whites use drugs at similar rates, but the imprisonment rate of African Americans for drug charges is almost 6 times that of whites.

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Criminal Justice System: Corrections The correctional branch of the criminal justice system involves a network of agencies that administer prisons and programs like parole and probation boards in a given jurisdiction. There are 3 million people in jail and prison today, far outpacing population growth and crime.

Between andthe of people incarcerated increased from roughlyto 2. InAfrican Americans constituted 2. African Americans are incarcerated at more than 5 times the rate of whites. The imprisonment rate for African American women is 2x that of white women. That equates to one out of every 37 adults in the United States.

Prisons are overpopulated. Effects of Incarceration The 13th amendment protects against cruel and unusual punishment, yet most of our prisons are at max capacity and have inhumane conditions, exploitation of labor, and absence of proper measures in place to respond adequately during states of emergency and national pandemics.

Inmates are five times more likely to be infected by HIV than the general population. Many of the formerly incarcerated also suffer from a loss of their rights as a result of their records: In 34 states, people who are on parole or probation cannot vote. In 12 states, a felony conviction means never voting again.

In addition, prior incarceration can affect one's ability to secure certain federal benefits or get a job. The effects of incarceration are felt by the families and communities of those individuals: More than one out of every six black men who today should be between 25 and 54 years old have disappeared from daily life.

Incarceration and early deaths are the main drivers behind their absence. A history of incarceration has been linked to vulnerability to disease, a greater likelihood of cigarette smokingand even premature death.

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Their absence from the community removes voters, workers, taxpayers, and more. Children whose parents are involved in the criminal justice system suffer from: psychological strain, antisocial behavior, suspension or expulsion from school, economic hardship, and are six times more likely to be involved in criminal activity.

Partners of incarcerated individuals suffer from depression and economic hardship. New cases of COVID have soared across hot spots in the United States in the last few weeks — even as daily infection rates in the nation have remained flat. The of infected cases will increase, as more demonstrators and protestors against police brutality are arrested. Infectious diseases are highly concentrated in corrections facilities. Penal Labor and Prison Industrial Complex The prison-industrial complex is a set of interest groups and institutions. Private prisons' business model is contingent upon incarcerating more and more people.

Hundreds of corporations benefit from penal labor, including some of our largest major corporations. In Texas, inmates are not paid for labor. African Americans are pursued, convicted, and sent to death at a disproportionally higher rate than any other race. Cycle of IncarcerationAmericans return to their communities from prison each year. About half of them will return to prison within a few years. Nearly 50, legal restrictions against people with arrest and conviction records routinely block access to jobs, housing, and educational opportunities, which ificantly contributes towards high rates of increased interactions with the criminal justice system and reincarceration of people who have been released from prison.

A lack of stable employment increases the likelihood that an individual will return to jail or prison. In fact, research has found that joblessness is the single most important predictor of recidivism.