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It opened to traffic on July 1,and dramatically collapsed into Puget Sound on November 7 the same year. Construction began in September From the time the deck was built, it began to move vertically in windy conditions, so construction workers nicknamed the bridge Galloping Gertie. The motion continued after the bridge opened to the public, despite several damping measures.

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The portions of the bridge still standing after the collapse, including the towers and cables, were dismantled and sold as scrap metal. Efforts to replace the bridge were delayed by the United States' entry into World War IIbut ina new Tacoma Narrows Bridge opened in the same location, using the original bridge's tower pedestals and cable anchorages. The portion of the bridge that fell into the water now serves as an artificial reef. The bridge's collapse had a lasting effect on science and engineering.

Proposals for a bridge between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula date at least to the Northern Pacific Railway 's trestle proposal, but concerted efforts began in the mids. The Tacoma Chamber of Commerce began campaigning and funding studies in Steinmanwho went on to de the Mackinac Bridge. Steinman, who made several Chamber-funded visits, presented a preliminary proposal inbut bythe Chamber canceled the agreement on the grounds that Steinman was not working hard enough to obtain financing. At the meeting of the structural division of the American Society of Civil Engineers, during construction of the bridge, with its deer in the audience, Steinman predicted its failure.

Subpart a—general provisions

From the start, financing of the bridge was a problem: revenue from the proposed tolls would not be enough to cover construction costs; another expense was buying out the ferry contract from a private firm running services on the Narrows at the time. But there was strong support for the bridge from the U. Preliminary construction plans by the Washington Department of Highways had called for a set of foot-deep 7. Moisseiff and Frederick Lienhard, the latter an engineer with what was then known as the Port of New York Authorityhad published a paper [7] that was probably the most important theoretical advance in the bridge engineering field of the decade.

They showed that the stiffness of the main cables via the suspenders would absorb up to one-half of the static wind pressure pushing a suspended structure laterally. This energy would then be transmitted to the anchorages and towers.

Part —alternative fuel transportation program

This approach meant a slimmer, more elegant de, and also reduced the construction costs as compared with the Highway Department's de proposed by Eldridge. Moisseiff's de won out, inasmuch as the other proposal was considered to be too expensive. Following Moisseiff's de, bridge construction began on September 27, Because planners expected fairly light traffic volumes, the bridge was deed with two lanes, and it was just 39 feet 12 m wide.

With only the 8-foot-deep 2. The decision to use such shallow and narrow girders proved the bridge's undoing. With such minimal girders, the deck of the bridge was insufficiently rigid and was easily moved about by winds; from the start, the bridge became infamous for its movement.

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A mild to moderate wind could cause alternate halves of the center span to visibly rise and fall several feet over four- to five-second intervals. This flexibility was experienced by the builders and workmen during construction, which led some of the workers to christen the bridge "Galloping Gertie". The nickname soon stuck, and even the public when the toll -paid traffic started felt these motions on the day that the bridge opened on July 1, Since the structure experienced considerable vertical oscillations while it was still under construction, several strategies were used to reduce the motion of the bridge.

They included [11]. The Washington Toll Bridge Authority hired Professor Frederick Burt Farquharson, an engineering professor at the University of Washingtonto make wind-tunnel tests and recommend solutions in order to reduce the oscillations of the bridge.

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Professor Farquharson and his students built a scale model of the bridge and a scale model of a section of the deck. The first studies concluded on November 2, —five days before the bridge collapse on November 7.

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He proposed two solutions:. The first option was not favored because of its irreversible nature. The second option was the chosen one, but it was not carried out, because the bridge collapsed five days after the studies were concluded. Leonard Coatsworth, a Tacoma News Tribune editor, was the last person to drive on the bridge:. Around me I could hear concrete cracking.

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I started back to the car to get the dog, but was thrown before I could reach it. The car itself began to slide from side to side on the roadway.

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I decided the bridge was breaking up and my only hope was to get back to shore. On hands and knees most of the time, I crawled yards [1, ft; m] or more to the towers… My breath was coming in gasps; my knees were raw and bleeding, my hands bruised and swollen from gripping the concrete curb… Towards the last, I risked rising to my feet and running a speed yards at a time… Safely back at the toll plaza, I saw the bridge in its final collapse and saw my car plunge into the Narrows.

Tubby, Coatsworth's cocker spanielwas the only fatality of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster; Bremerton was lost along with Coatsworth's car. Professor Farquharson [13] and a news photographer [14] attempted to rescue Tubby during a lull, but the dog was too terrified to leave the car and bit one of the rescuers.

Tubby died when the bridge fell and neither his body nor the car was ever recovered. The agent, Hallett R. Most of these were collected without incident. On November 28,the U. At least four people captured the collapse of the bridge. The film shows Leonard Coatsworth attempting to rescue his dog—without success—and then leaving the bridge.

The film was subsequently sold to Paramount Studioswho then duplicated the footage for newsreels in black-and-white and distributed the film worldwide to movie theaters. Castle Films also received distribution rights for 8 mm home video. This footage is still shown to engineeringarchitectureand physics students as a cautionary tale. Elliott and Monroe's original films of the construction and collapse of the bridge were shot on 16 mm Kodachrome film, but most copies in circulation are in black and grand because newsreels of the day copied the film onto 35 mm black-and-white stock.

There were also film speed discrepancies between Monroe and Elliot's footage, with Monroe filming his footage in 24 fps while Elliott had filmed rapids footage at 16 fps. A second reel of film emerged in Februarytaken by Arthur Leach from the Gig Harbor westward side of the bridge, and one of the few known images of the collapse from that side. Leach was a civil engineer who served as toll collector for the bridge, and is believed to have been the last person to cross the bridge to the west before its collapse, trying to prevent further crossings from the west as the bridge started to collapse.

Leach's footage originally on film but then recorded to video cassette by dating the projection also includes Leach's commentary at the time of the collapse. A commission formed by the Federal Works Agency studied the collapse of the bridge.

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Without drawing any definitive conclusions, the commission explored three possible failure causes:. The original Tacoma Narrows Bridge was the first to be built with girders of carbon steel anchored in concrete blocks; preceding des typically had open lattice beam trusses underneath the roadbed. Drivers would see cars approaching from the other direction rise and fall, riding the violent energy wave through the bridge. However, at that time the mass of the bridge was considered to be sufficient to keep it structurally sound. This is a so-called torsional vibration mode which is different from the transversal or longitudinal vibration modewhereby when the left side of the roadway went down, the right side would rise, and vice versa i.

This vibration was caused by aeroelastic fluttering. Fluttering is a physical phenomenon in which several degrees of freedom of a structure become coupled in an unstable oscillation driven by the wind. Here, unstable means that the forces and effects that cause the oscillation are not checked by forces and effects that limit the oscillation, so it does not self-limit but grows without bound. Eventually, the amplitude of the motion produced by the fluttering increased beyond the strength of a vital part, in this case the suspender cables.

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As several cables failed, the weight of the deck transferred to the adjacent cables, which became overloaded and broke in turn until almost all of the central deck fell into the water below the span. The bridge's spectacular destruction is often used as an object lesson in the necessity to consider both aerodynamics and resonance effects in civil and structural engineering.

Billah and Scanlan [3] reported that in fact, many physics textbooks for example Resnick et al.

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Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at larger amplitudes at certain frequencies, known as the system's natural frequencies. At these frequencies, even relatively small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude vibrations, because the system stores energy.

For example, using a swing realizes that if the pushes are properly timed, the swing can move with a very large amplitude. The driving force, in this case the child pushing the swing, exactly replenishes the energy that the system loses if its frequency equals the natural frequency of the system. Usually, the approach taken by those physics textbooks is to introduce a first order forced oscillator, defined by the second-order differential equation.

The solution of such ordinary differential equation as a function of time t represents the displacement response of the system given appropriate initial conditions. The actual vibration analysis of a more complicated mechanical system—such as an airplane, a building or a bridge—is based on the linearization of the equation of motion for the system, which is a multidimensional version of equation eq. Each structure has natural frequencies. For resonance to occur, it is necessary to have also periodicity in the excitation force.

The most tempting candidate of the periodicity in the wind force was assumed to be the so-called vortex shedding.